However, his second marriage proved far from idyllic and in 1953 he sought divorce, accusing his wife of psychological cruelty. Ms. Hammer herself made some critical remarks. She said her husband had a “cold, calculating brain” and that he did “no pain in seeing the suffering of others.” In many conversations… my husband bragged about his treatment of people and organizations who wanted to block him in one way or another. When OXY 1 landed that evening at Sheremetievo airport outside Moscow, it drove directly to the new terminal, where two Soviet protocol officers were waiting. Unlike other American visitors, Armand Hammer was not obliged to go through the usual customs and passport checks. Instead, he and his guests were taken to a V.I.P. lounge where they could relax while their luggage was loaded into waiting Chaika limousines. Hammer was then taken directly to his apartment, which is a short walk from the Kremlin and where his Russian maid welcomed him. The apartment is decorated with masterpieces of Russian art, which Hammer indicated in his will, to be given to the Soviet Union after his death.

OXY 1 has been specially designed for these intercontinental flights. Additional fuel tanks provide the jet with a non-stop range of 5,000 miles, and sophisticated telecommunications equipment allows hammer to call almost anywhere in the world during its journey. The 100-foot-long cabin has been transformed into a personal living room, equipped with luxury as small as a Betamax VCR and a video library with Chaplin films. There is even a guest room, in front. In 1955, Hammer decided to start life again. He sold his herd of Black Angus cattle and his whisky store, and moved to Los Angeles, where he married a third time, to Frances Tolman. The following year Hammer, along with his new wife and a few friends, arranged to take over an almost non-existent oil company, which was selling 18 cents per share. This company was Occidental Petroleum. After Lenin seeded power in 1917, Washington not only refused to recognize his government (he did not give in until 1933), but he also effectively cut off Moscow`s access to all of its gold and foreign exchange reserves in the United States. The net effect was that the Soviet government could not buy the supplies it desperately needed to stay in power.

To remedy this situation, Lenin appointed a German-Russian engineer named Ludwig C.A.K. Martens as “ambassador” to the United States with the mission of arranging supplies to the Soviet Union. When Martens was unable to take immediate control of the Russian funds, he approached Julius Hammer for interim financing. When Hammer returned to the United States, he began to buy back the components needed for a fertilizer business. He bought Interore (International Ore and Fertilizer Corporation), then the largest fertilizer trading company in the United States; The best fertilizer, ammonia producer, and Lake Sulphur company. Then he acquired huge amounts of phosphates in northern Florida. Until 1963, Occidental Petroleum became primarily a fertilizer company that accounted for less than 10% of its oil and gas revenues. But the success of the phosphate agreement would ultimately depend on the Fact that the Soviet Union would get U.S. bank loans to buy the fertilizer, and these did not come from the Kennedy administration. When the Cuban missile crisis further complicated relations between the United States and the Soviet Union, Hammer turned to Britain for the necessary financial credits. But when Khrushchev fell from power in 1964, the fertilizer agreement had to be put at least temporarily in the hinterland.